Control and Operation
of the MSA
 
Updated Feb 24, 2014,  Update description of Primary Axis choice.
Created Dec 16, 2009,  Software Version 115

    This page will describe the Control and Operation of the MSA.  Most of the controls are described while the MSA is in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode and are common to all MSA Build Levels and Modes.  Specialized controls for MSA Functions will be further described on their respective Function pages.  All MSA Functions can be accessed from the Main MSA Page.

The MSA Graph Window
Control during Spectrum Analyzer Mode (with or without Tracking Generator)
Control during Scalar Network Analyzer - Transmission Mode
Control during VNA - Transmission Mode
Control during VNA - Reflection Mode
    (Descriptions within each Mode)
        Graph Display
        Indicators
        Boxes and Buttons
        The Sweep Parameters Window
        The Axis Windows
        Menu Items


The MSA Graph Window
    The Graph Window is the operator's interface to the MSA.  It has three main areas, the top Menu Items, the center Graph Display and the bottom Control Panel.  The Menu Items are for general interface and selecting Modes of operation.  The Graph Display contains the trace, axis, marker information, and configuration settings.  The Control Panel contains the Buttons and Boxes to control the MSA.  I expect the Graph Window to change often, as the MSA project continues.  The Graph Window has been formatted for an 800 pixel by 600 pixel monitor.  However, it can be "re-sized" by "mouse grabbing" a corner (or side) to expand or contract.

Control during Spectrum Analyzer Mode (or with Tracking Generator)
    When the MSA Program "spectrumanalyzer" is run, the MSA will automatically begin sweeping in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode, by defaultThe following is a screen print of the Graph Window and Graph Display while sweeping in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode.  No signal is input to the MSA.  The Center Frequency is 0 Hz.  This is the initial default configuration, "the self-test", for the MSA.
Graph Display while sweeping in Spectrum Analyzer Mode:
msascreens/graphrun1.gif   
    The lower right Button, labeled "Running", indicates that the MSA is sweeping.  To Halt the sweep, position the Mouse cursor over any of the three Buttons, "Halt", "Halt At End", or "Running", and "Left Click" the Mouse.  The sweep will stop and the MSA will enter the "Halted" mode.
Graph Display when Halted:
msascreens/graphhalt1.gif
    
The buttons will change names.  While Halted, there is no obvious activity on the display.  But, the software is continually running in the background.  It is waiting for the user to exercise an option.
    The operator will normally change the operating parameters when the sweep is Halted, but some can be changed while actively sweeping.  If the program ever hangs up and won't respond, use the standard "Ctrl/Alt/Del" for Windoze, and close the program.  Be aware that the MSA software program, like any other program, can create conflicts inside your computer while other programs are running.  "Other programs" include, moving your Mouse, having a Mouse connected to the computer via USB, wireless devices, an Internet Browser, just to name a few.  As an example, I have an external USB wireless adapter on my computer. Even though the adapter is not active during MSA operation, the sweep speed is reduced by 20% because the wireless program is running in the computer's "background". By closing the wireless program in the Task Manager with the CtrlAltDel, the MSA speed returns to normal.
    To normally exit the MSA program, Halt the sweep, then, put the mouse pointer over the X button in the upper right corner of the Graph Window, and left click.  The Graph Window will close (disappear).  The program will completely close, ending the MSA "session".

Indicators
    A small arrow below the graph's baseline indicates where the sweep has halted.  It also indicates the direction of the sweep.  The text directly below the Graph's baseline is the Frequency, in MHz.
    A "Marker" Table in the lower left, under the Graph, displays the Frequency and Data measurements of any markers that have been selected.
    The text in the upper right is the current configuration settings.
    Text above either the Left or Right vertical axis indicate the type of quantified data, with the values displayed next to the axis scale.
    Message box.  This is an area between the Graph and Marker Table, normally invisible.  This box displays any messages that are created within the program.  If an error message is displayed, the system will automatically halt.  The error must be corrected before continuing.
    "Date; Time" text.  This is an area above the center of the Graph.  It displays the date and time.  You can double click this area to open a "Title" window and insert any three lines of text you desire.  This is useful for displaying information you would like to be printed with the Graph.  You can over-write the date;time stamp, but it will return on the next "Restart".

Boxes and Buttons
    "Continue" button.  This will allow the Spectrum Analyzer to continue sweeping from the point at which it was halted.  In some cases, the button will not be accessable, only a "Restart" is allowed.  During sweeping this button will change its name to "Halt".  When it is clicked, the sweep will halt immediately.
    "Restart" button.  This will cause the Spectrum Analyzer to restart the sweep on the first step.  A short period of time will occur before sweeping actually begins.  During this time the MSA is going through a re-initialization and is calculating all of the points for the next sweep.  During sweeping this button will change its name to "Runnning".  When it is clicked, the sweep will halt immediately.
  Note:
  Pushing the keyboard's "Alt" key will interrupt the sweep and the MSA program.  Pushing the "Alt" key again will return to sweeping.
    "One Step" button. This will advance the Spectrum Analyzer measurement from the last point where it was Halted, by one step.  Each click on this button will step the frequency once and automatically Halt.  During normal sweeping this button will change its name to "Halt At End".  When it is clicked, the sweep will halt at the end of the sweep.
    "Redraw" button.  It is possible that the graph may suffer a loss of information if it is obscured by another window.  If so, the Graph and its data can be "Redrawn" with this button.
    "Marker" pull-down box.  This will select a labeled marker to be installed into the Graph.  The procedure is to select a marker in this box, then move the mouse pointer over the trace where you want the marker.  Double click the left mouse button.  If "None" had been selected, the "L" marker will be installed into the Graph as the default marker and "L" will be inserted into the "Marker" selection box.  A marker will be placed on the data point, closest to the mouse pointer.  The values of the data point will be displayed in the Marker Table.
    "Delete" button.  This will delete the selected marker from both the Graph and the Marker Table.
    "Clear Marks" button.  This will delete all of the markers from
both the Graph and the Marker Table.  The Marker Table will disappear, but will return after the next "Restart" and "Halt".
    "MHz" box.  This will display the frequency at which the selected marker is positioned on the Graph.  You may insert any frequency, within the range of the span, into the
"MHz" box, and click the "Enter" box.  The selected marker will move to that position on the Graph.  If the inserted frequency is between two valid data points, the marker position and its displayed data will be an interpolation between the two valid points.  Clicking the "+" or "-"  buttons will move the selected marker to the next closest valid data point, one step at a time.
    "Mark->Cent" button.  This will change the Center Frequency to be the frequency of the selected marker.  It will take effect upon clicking the "Restart" button.
    "Expand L-R" button.  This will change the span of the Sweep to be between the "L" and "R" markers.  It will take effect upon clicking the "Restart" button.  The "L" marker can be on the right side of the "R" marker.
    "Test Setups" button.  Clicking this button will open a window and allow the user to save or access up to 10 test configurations.  They will be stored as text files in the MSA Software folder and are available for all future sessions.  Each saved configuration will include the active preferences and calibration data.

The Sweep Parameters Windows
    While Halted, position the mouse cursor in the area just below the Graph's horizontal baseline and double left click.  The Sweep Parameters Window will open.  It contains the buttons and boxes used to control the parameters of the Spectrum Analyzer.  You may also double click in the text area of the displayed parameters in the upper right to open the Sweep Parameters Window.
Sweep Parameters Window for Spectrum Analyzer Mode
msascreens/swpparamsa.gif
    "Data Mode" drop-down box.  This selection determines what data will be Graphed.
* 0(Normal Operation) is the default for Graphing normal mode measurements.
* 1(Graph Mag Cal) will plot the Calibration Table for the selected Path
* 2(Graph Freq Cal) will plot the Frequency Calibration Table (sweep from 0 to 1000 MHz)
* 3(Graph Noisy Sine) will plot a fictional set of sine wave points (sweep from 0 to 1000 MHz)
* 4(Graph 1MHz Peak) will plot a fictional set of data points at 1 MHz
* 5(Simulate RLC/Coax) simulates and graphs data for an RLC circuit terminating a transmission line.
More will be written on these "fictional" measurements at a later date.

    "Select Final Filter Path:" drop-down box. A selection here will tell the program which Final Xtal Filter Path is used.  It will send signals to an optional Bank of Switched Filters.  These filters determine the Resolution Bandwidth of the MSA.  Path 1 is the Default path.  When selecting a different filter path, the "Restart" must be clicked for the system to be accurate.  The software will use a specific table of path correction values for each Path, to compensate for MSA inaccuracies.  "P1" denotes Path 1, the "10.694785" denotes the Final I.F. frequency, and the "4" denotes the filter path has a 4 KHz bandwidth.
    "Video Filter BW" drop-down box.  You must "tell" the sofware the position of the Video Bandwidth Selector Switch.  The 3 positions are Wide, Mid, and Narrow.  At this time, no commands are given, but this will be expanded in a future version of software to command a separate Video Filter Module.
    "Graph Appearance".  This is a choice of background color for the Graph Window.
    "Refresh Screen Each Scan" check box.  Click box to check or uncheck.  When checked, the Graph will refresh itself on the end of each sweep.  If the box is unchecked, the Graph will not be refreshed until the sweep is Halted.  This is a user preference.  For maximum sweep speed, uncheck the box.
    "Display Sweep Time" check box.  Click box to check or uncheck.  When checked, the sweep time, in seconds, is displayed in the Message Box, but only during active sweeping.
    "Spur Test" check box.  Click box to check or uncheck.  When checked, it is a method to verify if a signal on the Graph is a real input signal or a spur that is created by the Spectrum Analyzer.  The Spur Test will activate when clicking the "OK" and "Restart" buttons.  This test will change the Phase Detector Frequency of PLL 1.  If a questionable signal on the graph changes location or goes away when the sweep is resumed, it means the signal is a spur that is self-generated within the MSA.  It is not a real signal entering the input of the MSA.  To return to Normal operation, remove the check from the "Spur Test" check box.  Then click "OK" and "Restart".  This button is not used, nor displayed in the VNA Mode.
    "Cent" box.  This is the box to enter the Center Frequency of the sweep.  Enter the frequency in MHz.  25.0 MHz can be entered as "25"; the decimal and zero's are not necessary.  25.200 MHz would be entered as "25.2" ; 455 KHz, ".455" ; 1 Hz, ".000001".  And, yes, "0" is a valid center frequency.
    "Span" box.  This is the box to enter the Sweep Width.  Enter the range in MHz, with the same consideration for decimals and zeros as in the "Cent" box.  Here again, "0" is a valid sweep width.  Use "0" when you want the MSA to "zero sweep" at a fixed center frequency, while displaying the signal's activity.  The terms "span" and "sweep width" have the same meaning.
    "Start" box.  When the Start Stop box is checked, the "Start" box will accept a value that represents a start frequency.
    "Stop" box.
  When the Start Stop box is checked, the "Stop" box will accept a value that represents a stop frequency.
    "Steps/Sweep" box.  Enter the number of steps (data points) to compose a single sweep.  Valid numbers are from 1 to 40000.  Personally, I like 400 steps, and this is the default.
    A value of 720 will create a trace that has one data point for each pixel on the monitor.  There will be no gaps in between data points.
    The value can be greater than 720 steps and all data points will be taken.  However, the monitor will "interpolate" and average for a total of 720 pixel locations.  This doesn't affect the accuracy of the data, it just makes the visible trace an average rather than absolute.
    A value less than 720 will create gaps in the trace.  Again,
this doesn't affect the accuracy of the data.
    The higher the value, the slower the MSA will sweep.
  Keep an even number if you want the commanded center frequency to be at the center of the Graph.  I suggest using a number that is a submultiple of the Sweep Width.  This will assure a "whole" number being displayed for each sweep step.
    Sweeping begins at step number 0 and ends on the step number entered into the "Steps/Sweep" box.   There will always be one more data point than the value of "steps", because, data point number "0" is included.  Example: entering the value of "2" will result in three data points and two full steps, stepping from point number 0 to point number 1, then point number 1 to point number 2.  Point numbers and step numbers are treated as the same value (step 135 = data point 135).  The speed of the sweep is inversely proportional to the number of steps, fast for few steps.
    "Wait (ms)" box.  As this value is increased, the sweep is slowed and the measured data becomes more precise.  As a general rule of thumb, if the Video Bandwidth Selection Switch is selected for Wide bandwidth, then enter 0 or 1, for fastest response with minor data error.  For Medium video bandwidth , enter 1 to 10.  For Narrow bandwidth, enter 10 to 500.  Higher values are fine.  The amount of real time for each whole number increment is approximately 1 millisecond.  Valid numbers are 0 and any whole number above 0.  The value of "0" will remove all delay and allow maximum sweep speed.  Values above "15" will be rounded off to increments of 10 in the software.  You may resume sweeping without having to use "Restart".

Special Note on Sweep Speed:
  Sweep speed is controlled by the data in the "Wait (ms)" box.  Whole number increments up to "15" will slow the sweep by 1 millisecond for each frequency step of the sweep.  Above "15" the value is rounded off in 10 msec increments.
    Sweep speed is also affected by some of the other parameters.  For maximum sweep speed, uncheck the "Refresh Screen Each Scan" and "Display Sweep Time" boxes.  Enter "0" into the
"Wait (ms)" box.  Decrease the number of data points taken, the "Steps/Sweep" box.  Use the minimum needed to display a viable trace.  Trial and error is the motive here.  Use an even number to assure that the center of the graph is a viable data point.
    It must be noted that sweep speed affects the quality and accuracy of the data.  It takes a finite amount of time for the MSA to "settle" between steps.  It is possible, and even likely, that the operator can sweep too fast.  To verify if the data (and trace) is accurate, you can change the sweep action from "L-R" to "Alternate".  If the trace is unchanged while sweeping in both directions, you can be somewhat confident that the data is accurate.  The slower the sweep, the more accurate the data.
    The MSA, and any spectrum analyzer that uses a "digital sweep", is prone to miss, or "skip" signals.  This is because the step frequency can be greater than the bandwidth of the Final Resolution Filter. The step frequency is controlled by the values of "Span" and "Steps/Sweep".  The resulting step frequency is displayed on the right side of the Graph Window, in the set-up parameters text.  If the potential for skipping signals exists, a notice will be displayed in the "Message" box.

    "Number of Divisions" drop-down box.  This selects the number of vertical reference grid lines along the horizontal axis.  Default is "10".
    "Sweep" options table.  The following check boxes determine the sweep preferences.
    *  "Linear".  This is the default and normal sweep.

    *  "Log".  This performs a logrithmic sweep.  If checked, the "Start" and "Stop" boxes become active.  Valid inputs for the "Start" and "Stop" box inputs are frequencies greater than 0 (MHz).  Negative frequencies and very narrow spans will not be allowed.
   
"L-R".  This performs sweeping from Left to Right, low frequency to higher frequency.
   
"R-L".  This performs sweeping from Right to Left, high frequency to lower frequency.
   
"Alternate".  This performs sweeping from Left to Right, then Right to Left.
    "Frequency Mode" drop-down box.  This determines the Band of Operation for the MSA.  Default is 1G, the original 0 to 1000 Mhz Band.  2G is 1000 MHz to 2000 MHz.  3G is 2000 MHz to 3000 MHz.  When the 2G Band is selected, MSA path cable interconnections will usually be re-configured.
    "OK" button.  Clicking will close the window and cause the program to use any changes made within the window.  Some changes made in the Sweep Parameters Window will allow the operator only the option of "Restart".
    "Cancel" button.  Clicking will close the window and any changes made within the window will be disregarded by the program.

    "Sig Gen Freq" and Box. This control is not shown for the Basic MSA.  This is relevant for only Build Levels 2 or 3 (MSA/TG or VNA), and only when in Spectrum Analyzer Mode. This controls the CW Signal Generator Frequency that is available at the Tracking Generator output connector.  The change will take effect when the "Restart" is clicked.
    Note: The Signal Generator capability of the MSA/TG or VNA cannot be disabled (turned off).  There will always be a frequency exiting the Tracking Generator port.  The output is not confined to a fundamental frequency.  There will be other product frequencies and harmonics generated within the MSA/TG.  Sometimes this can affect normal MSA operation.  When in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode, it is advisable to "park" the Signal Generator to a frequency that will not affect spectrum analyzer operations.  I suggest "parking" the Signal Generator to a frequency above the selected sweep of the Spectrum Analyzer.  It is possible to attribute strange spurious to the Signal Generator.  If so, move the frequency of the Sig Gen and see if the spurious move or disappear.

Sweep Parameters Window for Spectrum Analyzer with Tracking Generator Mode
msascreens/swpparamsatg.gif
    "Tracking Generator".   This controls the action of the tracking generator. This is relevant for Build Levels 2 or 3 (MSA/TG or VNA), and only when in Spectrum Analyzer with Tracking Generator Mode.  It is not shown for Build Level 1, the Basic MSA.  The changes will take effect when the "Restart" is clicked.
    "Normal" button.  Indicates the Tracking Generator output is the same frequency as what the MSA is commanded and tuned to, plus a value of frequency offset entered in the "Offset" box.
    When the Normal Button is clicked, the label changes to "Reverse", and the Tracking Generator will "reverse track" the MSA commanded input frequency.

The Axis Windows
    The Left or Right vertical Axis Scales will display the reference values of a measurment.  The references can be changed by the controls in their Axis Windows.
    While Halted, position the mouse cursor over any value displayed next to the Magnitude Scale, and double left click.  The "Axis Y2" Window will open.  During the Spectrum Analyzer Mode it contains the buttons and boxes used to control the parameters of the magnitude trace.  The Left Scale is active in other Modes and has similar controls.
msascreens/axisy2.gif
    "Trace Color" box.  Click within the box to open a Color Window.  You may choose a variety of colors for the trace.
    "Trace Width" pull-down box.  You may select 3 different trace widths.  The numbers correspond to the number of pixels used to create the trace.  The default value "1" is the best performer, and 2 or 3 are more suitable for histograms or for print-outs.
    "Trace Style" pull-down box.   This box has up to 5 selections for how the trace is displayed:
    *  "Off"  The trace will not be displayed the Graph Window.  However, the data will be collected and the Marker Table will update.
    *  "Norm Erase" The data point is connected to the previous data point by a line.  Each trace will remain on the graph until the next sweep, where it will be erased and re-written at each step.  This is the most common display for spectrum analyzers.  I should caution that connecting data points with a line will give the visual impression that the data is valid between data points.  This is not the case for the MSA or any digital analyzer using a "stepped" response.
    *  "Norm Stick" Same as Norm Erase, except the traces will not be erased.  They will remain during subsequent sweeps.  This is useful when looking at accumulated data.
    *  "Histo Erase" The data point is represented by a Histogram.  This is a vertical line from the base of the graph to the magnitude level of the signal.  Each histogram will remain on the graph until the next sweep, where it will be erased and re-written with new data.  This is not used, nor displayed in the SNA or VNA Modes.
    *  "Histo Stick" Same as Histo Erase, except the histograms will not be erased.  They will remain during subsequent sweeps.  This is useful for accumulated peak readings.  This is not used, nor displayed in the SNA or VNA Modes.
    "Number of Divisions" pull-down box.  You may select the number of horizontal graph reference lines, from 4 to 12.  Default is "10" and is the most common.
    "Graph Data" pull-down box.  This will define the Scale and Trace, depending on the MSA Function.  For example: the Spectrum Analyzer mode has three measurement options:
    * "Magnitude (dBm)
    * "Magnitude (Watts)
    * "Magnitude (Volts)
    "Top Ref" box.  and "Bot Ref" box.  Numbers entered into these boxes will assign the Reference values for the vertical scale on the Graph.
    "Auto Scale" check box.  A check will allow the program to create a scale that is appropriate for the level that is measured.  Apply a check mark here when changing an option in the "Graph Data" pull-down box.  This will assure a trace on the graph.  Uncheck this when manually entering values into the "Top Ref" or "Bot Ref" box.
    "OK" button.  Clicking will close the window and cause the program to use any changes made within the window.
    "Cancel" button.  Clicking will close the window and any changes made within the window will be disregarded by the program.

Menu Items during Spectrum Analyzer Mode
    The Menu Items allow the user to access the functions and modes of the MSA.  The Menu Items depend on the construction level of the MSA and the present Mode of operation.  The following are common to all Modes and Functions of the MSA.  I expect Menu Items to be added and expanded with future versions of software.

[File] (common to all Modes)
    [Save Image] 
This will save the contents of the graph window as a bitmap file. You will be given an opportunity to name the file. The bitmap will contain the graph window contents exactly as shown on screen.  Be sure the window is fully visible before you select this menu item. The file is created by Liberty Basic, and some graphics programs will not recognize its format.
    Preferences, Save Prefs and Load Prefs. 
Each MSA session opens and loads the configuration settings that are saved in a file called "Prefs.txt". This file resides in the folder, "MSA_Prefs", which is a sub-folder of "MSA_Info". The initial MSA session uses default values that are determined to be the most efficient for testing and running of a new MSA in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode.
    [Save Prefs]  This will save the current session's configuration settings into a text file. Sweep data and  operating calibration data is not saved.  You can name it anything but retain the ".txt" extension.  I would suggest that you retain the file, "Prefs.txt", and name any new file, "Prefs1.txt" or "Prefs2.txt", etc.  Future sessions of MSA will always open using "Prefs.txt".  Once you have determined how you want your MSA to open, you can replace the existing "Prefs.txt" by over-writing it.  A newly created preference file MUST be saved in the "MSA_Prefs" Folder. I suggest you store only Preference files (configurations) in this folder. You can save and store as many as you want.
    [Load Prefs]    You can load any ".txt" file that is in the folder, "MSA_Prefs".  This will re-configure the present MSA session into the configuration that is stored in that file.
    [Load Data]
    [Save Data] This will save the "Sweep Data", which is the data collected during the most recent sweep of the MSA.
    [Load Front End]
    [Save Debug Info]  This is a special feature for trouble shooting a faulty MSA.  There is much more work to be done in the area but it is designed to be used by me or another MSA user to help a builder with problems.  Basically, the builder would configure his MSA into a problem condition.  He can then click "Save Debug File".  A folder named "xxDebug" will be created and installed into the "MSA_Software" folder.  He can then send this Debug folder to me or another user/helper.  We can convert the files to allow our MSA to run, using the same data taken by the builder.  This is not fully active yet.  I will update this paragraph when it is.
    [Load Debug Info]  This will configure the helper's MSA to the configuration of the builder's MSA.  Again, much more to be written on this.

[Edit] (common to all Modes)
    [Copy Image] 
This will copy the contents of the graph window to the clipboard, so you can paste it into another application. The clipboard will contain the graph window contents exactly as shown on screen (except the cursor will not be captured), so be sure the window is fully visible before you select this menu item.

[Options] (common to all Modes)
    [Appearances]  This will open a "Graph Appearance" Window and allow the user to select preferences for the Graph colors.  See, Changing the Graph Appearance in the MSA  by Sam Wetterlin.
    [Markers]  This will open a "Marker Options" window.  More will be written on this window at a later time.
    [Sweep]  This will open the "Sweep Parameters" window.  Same as double left clicking below the graph to open the window.
    [Show Variables]  This will open a "Variables Window" on the right side of the Graph Window.  It will contain many of the variables, and their values, that are used in the program.  All data is relevant for the step at which the sweep was Halted or for the step at which the Left Mouse button is double clicked.  The sweep can be resumed with the Variables Window open and the data will update with each step.  However, the Variables Window may become hidden behind the Graph Window.  To view, go to the Windoze bottom tray and click the Variables Window Tab.
    These are the variables displayed in the Variables Window, but the Function of the MSA will determine if the values are valid:
msascreens/variabswindow.gifthis step =  step number of the sweep
dds1output = output frequency of DDS 1
LO1 = output frequency of LO 1 or VCO 1
pdf1 = phase detector frequency of PLL 1
ncounter1
= RF divide ratio of PLL 1 (pdf1 = LO1/ncounter1)
Bcounter1 = divide ratio of B counter inside PLL 1
Acounter1 = divide ratio of A counter inside PLL 1
fcounter1 = fractional divider of PLL 1, but only if it is a Fractional N PLL, otherwise it is 0
rcounter1 = Reference clock divide ratio of PLL 1 (
pdf1 = dds1output/rcounter1)
LO2 = output frequency of LO 2 or VCO 2
pdf2 = phase detector frequency of PLL 2
ncounter2 = RF divide ratio of PLL 2 (pdf2 = LO2/ncounter2)
Bcounter2
= divide ratio of B counter inside PLL 2
Acounter2 = divide ratio of A counter inside PLL 2
rcounter2 = Reference clock divide ratio of PLL 2 (pdf2 = masterclock/rcounter1)
LO3 = output frequency of LO 3 or VCO 3
pdf3 = phase detector frequency of PLL 3
ncounter3 =
RF divide ratio of PLL 3 (pdf3 = LO3/ncounter3)
Bcounter3 = divide ratio of B counter inside PLL 3
Acounter3 = divide ratio of A counter inside PLL 3
fcounter3 = fractional divider of PLL 3, but only if it is a Fractional N PLL, otherwise it is 0
rcounter3 = Reference clock divide ratio of PLL 3 (pdf3 = dds3output/rcounter3)
dds3output = output frequency of DDS 3
Magdata = the actual bit count of the Magnitude Analog to Digital Converter
magpower = the "processed" power level of Magnitude
Phadata
= the actual bit count of the Phase Analog to Digital Converter
PDM = the state of the Phase Detector Module, Normal is 0, Inverted is 1
Real Final I.F. = actual frequency of the I.F., entering the Log Detector
glitchtime =
During the first initial sweep after starting the program, the variable "glitchtime" is given a value representing a relative speed of the computer.  A "glitchtime = 67.5675676" means it will complete about 68 computer operations in one millisecond.  Higher values will occur with faster computers.  This value is used in the software to make everyone's MSA somewhat uniform in speed.

[Setup] (common to all Modes)
    [Hardware Config Manager] 
This will open the "Configuration Manager" window.  This window will allow the operator to modify any MSA default value.  A complete description for this window is in the page, Initial Set-Up and Calibration for the MSA.
    [Initial Cal Manager]  This will open the "Calibration File Manager" window for the user to calibrate the MSA or change values in the calibration tables.  A complete description for this window is in the page, Initial Set-Up and Calibration for the MSA.
    [Special Tests]  This will open the "Special Tests" window.  From there, other Functions and Special Tests can be performed. I will describe the use of these items in the sections that use this window.
    [Primary Axis]  This will open a "Primary Axis" window and allow the user to change the primary axis to either Left Axis (Y1), the left side, or Right Axis (Y2), the right side. This is a preference to the user. It should be noted that several of the MSA functions are specifically designed to operate only on the Primary Axis.
Markers: P+ and P- automatically attach themselves to the trace governed by the Primary Axis.
Both the Filter Analysis Function and the Crystal Analysis F
unction are associated with only the Primary Axis. Therefore, Magnitude measurement must be on the Primary Axis for these Functions to work.

[Data]
    Items under the [Data] menu depend on the MSA Build Level and the Mode of operation. 
Sub-menu items can be selected to display data that was collected during the previous full sweep, even if it was Halted before completion..  Data can be copied and pasted into an external program for post processing and evaluation.  Many spreadsheet programs, such as Excel, can perform some amazing signal evaluations.  This is a very convenient method for exporting data into those spreadsheets.  The data are displayed in a text format, within a Data Window.  Each Data Window has options for Selecting and Copying.  I expect items to change or expand in future revisions.

[Data] (during Spectrum Analyzer Mode)
    [Graph Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 2 columns of values, with a row of values for each frequency step in one full sweep.  The data columns are:
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Processed Data that is referenced on the Right Axis (Magnitude)
    [Input Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 5 columns of values, with a row of values for each frequency step in one full sweep.  The data columns are:
Step Number- from 0 to value of "Steps/Sweep"
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Calc Magnitude Input-  Calculated Magnitude Input to MSA (in dBm), a process using Factors from the Path and Frequency Calibration Tables
Mag AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Mag AtoD Converter, no processing done
Freq Cal Factor- Frequency Calibration Factor, interpolated from the Mag vs. Frequency Table.  The table was derived during the Initial MSA Calibration.


[Functions] (during Spectrum Analyzer Mode)
Items under the [Functions] menu depend on the MSA Build Level and the Mode of operation.
    [Filter Analysis]  This will open a "Filter Analysis" window for placing markers at various points on the trace.   The maximum response on the Graph is assumed to be a filter response.  The 3 dB points are calculated and used to create analysis information, next to the Marker Information.
This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See: The MSA as a Filter Analyzer.

[Operating Cal] This menu item is not shown in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode.
    [Perform Cal] - This will open the window, "Perform Calibrations".  This will allow the operator to perform a Reference Line Calibration, which preceeds a standard SNA or VNA measurement.  This calibration will "normalize" the sweep to 0 dB for Magnitude and 0 degrees for Phase for the VNA.  After this calibration, all sweeps will be Referenced to this "normalized" calibration.  When either of the following calibrations are performed, insure that the Plane Extension is "0", found in the "Sweep Parameters"  window.
    The Band Sweep Calibration will calibrate the
SNA or VNA for a specific frequency range.  The calibration values are stored in local memory and will be deleted when the MSA session is closed.  The accuracy is valid only when the subsequent sweeps are identical to the sweep frequency that is calibrated.
    The Baseline Calibration is normally the sweep frequency range of the MSA/VNA, which is .1 MHz to 1000 MHz. (
greater than 0 Hz).  This calibration is stored in a file, and is placed into the same folder as the MSA software.  It is not deleted at the end of the MSA session.  It will be accessable for all future sessions.  Although this calibration is quite accurate at the time it is taken, it may not be accurate at a later time, due to temperature differences.  But, it is a valuable for "ballpark" measurements.  The Verification VNA showed that, after one month, the Baseline Cal had shifted less than 4 degrees and had a ripple of less than 0.5 degrees.
    [Reference To] - This will open a window to select the SNA or VNA to reference its measurements to the appropriate calibration table.  On initial running, the Cal tables are filled with zeros.  It is the same thing as selecting "No Reference".  If a Baseline Calibration has been performed, the file will be accessed and the calibration will be valid.  "No Reference" is the default.

[Mode]  Not shown for the MSA Build Level 1 (Basic MSA).
    [Spectrum Analyzer] with Signal Generator
    [Spectrum Analyzer with Tracking Generator]
    [SNA Transmission] Scalar Network Analyzer, Transmission Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S21or S12 Parameters of a Device, Magnitude only.  Sometimes used in conjunction with a test fixture containing the Device.  Shown for MSA Build Level 2 (MSA/TG) only.
    [VNA Transmission] Vector Network Analyzer, Transmission Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S21or S12 Parameters of a Device.  Sometimes used in conjunction with a test fixture containing the Device.  Shown for MSA Build Level 3 (VNA) only.
    [VNA Reflection] Vector Network Analyzer, Reflection Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S11 or S22 Parameters of a Device using some form of Reflection Bridge.  Shown for MSA Build Level 3 (VNA) only.

Control during Scalar Network Analyzer-Transmission Mode
Menu Items during SNA-Transmission Mode
[File] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Edit] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Options] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Setup] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode

[Data] (during SNA-Transmission Mode)
    [S21 Parameters] - Final S21 Data, in Touchstone format. The S21 Angle is meaningless.
    [Input Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 5 columns of values, with a row of values for each frequency step in one full sweep.  The data columns are:

Step Number- from 0 to value of "Steps/Sweep"
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Calc Magnitude Input-  Calculated Magnitude Input to MSA (in dBm), a process using Factors from the Path and Frequency Calibration Tables
Mag AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Mag AtoD Converter, no processing done
Freq Cal Factor- Frequency Calibration Factor, interpolated from the Mag vs. Frequency Table.  The table was derived during the Initial MSA Calibration.

    [Installed Line Cal] - This will open a Data Window and display 3 columns of values:
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Cal_Mag-  The Magnitude Calibration Factor from the Line Calibration in use during the sweep
Cal_Ang-  This is not used.  The data will always be 0.00

[Functions] (during SNA-Transmission Mode)
    [Filter Analysis]  This will open a "Filter Analysis" window for placing markers at various points on the trace.   The maximum response on the Graph is assumed to be a filter response.  The 3 dB points are calculated and used to create analysis information, next to the Marker Information.
This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See: The MSA as a Filter Analyzer.
    [Crystal Analysis]  The response on the Graph is assumed to be a series crystal response.  This will open a "Crystal Analysis" window for the determination of crystal parameters. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA as a Crystal Tester.
    [RLC Analysis]  Provides a simple way to analyze a complex circuit by transforming to an equivalent Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor circuit.  However, since phase is not measured, measurement is somewhat limited. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA for RLC Analysis.
    [Component Meter]  Provides a simple way to measure resitors, capacitors and inductors, much like an RCL meter.  However, since phase is not measured, measurement is somewhat limited. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA for Component Measurement.

[Operating Cal] during SNA-Transmission Mode
    [Perform Cal] - This will open the window, "Perform Calibrations".  This will allow the operator to perform a Reference Line Calibration, which preceeds a standard SNA measurement.  This calibration will "normalize" the sweep to 0 dB for Magnitude.  After this calibration, all sweeps will be Referenced to this "normalized" calibration.  When either of the following calibrations are performed, insure that the Plane Extension is "0", found in the "Sweep Parameters"  window.
    The Band Sweep Calibration will calibrate the SNA for a specific frequency range.  The calibration values are stored in local memory and will be deleted when the MSA session is closed.  The accuracy of the SNA is valid only when the subsequent sweeps are identical to the sweep frequency that is calibrated.
    The Baseline Calibration is normally the sweep frequency range of the MSA/TG, which is .1 MHz to 1000 MHz. (
greater than 0 Hz).  This calibration is stored in a file, and is placed into the same folder as the MSA software.  It is not deleted at the end of the MSA session.  It will be accessable for all future sessions.  Although this calibration is quite accurate at the time it is taken, it may not be accurate at a later time, due to temperature differences.  But, it is a valuable for "ballpark" measurements.  The Verification MSA showed that, after one month, the Baseline Cal had shifted less than .1 dB.

    [Reference To] - This will open a window to select the SNA to reference its measurements to the appropriate calibration table.  On initial running of the SNA, the Cal tables are filled with zeros.  It is the same thing as selecting "No Reference".  If a Baseline Calibration has been performed, the file will be accessed and the calibration will be valid.  "No Reference" is the default.

[Mode] for MSA/TG
Click to enter any mode of operation.
    [Spectrum Analyzer] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Signal Generator
    [Spectrum Analyzer with TG] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Tracking Generator
    [SNA Transmission] Scalar Network Analyzer, Transmission Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S21or S12 Parameters of a Device, Magnitude only.  Sometimes used with a test fixture containing the Device.

Control during VNA Transmission Mode
    When the MSA Program "spectrumanalyzer" is run, the MSA will automatically begin sweeping in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode, by defaultThe VNA-Transmission Mode is entered from the Menu / Mode. The following is a screen print of the Graph Window and Graph Display while sweeping in the VNA-Transmission Mode.  A Crystal Filter is the DUT (Device Under Test), with a 10 dB attenuator on each end.
Graph Display, VNA-Transmission Mode:
msascreens/graphvnatran135.gif
    Controls within the Graph Window are no different than those described when in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode.

Sweep Parameters Window, VNA-Transmission Mode:
msascreens/swpparamvnatr135.gif
    Controls within the Sweep Parameters Window are no different than those described when in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with these exceptions:
    Neither the Signal Generator nor the Tracking Generator is accessable.  The Tracking Generator is automatically commanded for Normal Tracking and no Offset.
    
    Note: The "Select Final Filter Path:"  drop-down box must have the correct Path selected for VNA operation.  All VNA calibrations are performed in a single Path.  Usually, this is Path 1.
    "PDM Inversion (deg) box.  This box displays the current calibration for the PDM.  It can be changed in this box for special testing.
    "Plane Extension" box.  This adds or subtracts (-) time into the calculations.  Also referred to as "Reference Plane Extension".  It is the same as physically adding cable length within the Reference Source circuit.  This is a very good way to factor out time delay effects of transitional components surrounding the DUT, such as barrel connectors, test jig, etc.  Just for reference, the Verification unit requires a plane extension of "3.2" ns to factor out its internal delays.  A new value (in nanoseconds) may be entered and the "Recalc" button clicked.  The Graph will immediately retrace with the extension value.
    "Video Filter BW" and "Wait (ms)" boxes. As with Spectrum Analyzer mode, we can set the video filter to wide, middle or narrow. The narrower the setting, the longer the settling time required when stepping from point to point, and the more Wait time we need to specify. When phase is involved, precise measurements are likely to require extra wait time, and settings of 15-50 ms are typical. 100-150 ms of Wait time may be required for the most precise measurements. When the PDM measures raw phase within a certain “inaccurate zone”, the MSA inverts its phase reference, remeasures, and adjusts for the phase shift caused by the inversion. This inversion causes a large, abrupt shift in the raw phase measurement, which requires an extra-long settling time. The stronger the video filter (larger capacitor), the more Wait time is required. The MSA automatically imposes the extra delay, but it is important that you set the Video Filter in the sweep parameters window to match the actual hardware setting, so the software knows the state of the video filter. (The software setting does not actually set the video filter at the present time; it just informs the software of the setting.)

The Y Axis Windows, Axis Y1 (left) and Axis Y2 (right)
    The data to be graphed on each axis can be selected from the Y-axis parameters dialog, which opens when the users double-clicks in the area of the corresponding axis grid-line labels. This dialog is in the same format as for Spectrum Analyzer mode, but contains a different selection of graphs, as shown in the following:
msascreens/y2axiswinvna.gif

--S21 Magnitude (db). These is conventional, processed Magnitude using a reference calibration.
--S21 Phase Angle. These is conventional, processed Phase using a reference calibration.
--Raw Power (dBm) and
--Raw Phase Angle. These are the "absolute" measurements without adjustment for a reference calibration. It may be desired to display these in unusual situations.

--Insertion Loss. This is simply the negative of the S21 dB value. For a bandpass filter, instead of graphing a “hill”, this will graph a “valley” with maximum transmission (lowest loss) at the bottom.
--S21 Group Delay. This is the negative of the change in phase over the change in frequency. It is sometimes a useful value. Due to being calculated from rates of change, it is very susceptible to noise, which causes the graph to be very erratic. This graph will ultimately be replaced by an item under the Analysis menu which will produce a smoother graph.
--None. This causes nothing to be graphed on that axis, the axis to be blank, and no value for that axis to be displayed in the Marker area. (As opposed to using Trace Style to turn the trace off, which leaves the axis labels in place and allows the axis values to be displayed in the Marker area.)
The “Histogram” option for Trace Style is not available for either axis in Transmission mode.

Menu Items during VNA-Transmission Mode
[File] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Edit] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Options] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Setup] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode, except:
    [PDM Calibration] This will open the "PDM Calibration Manager" window.  This window will allow the operator to calibrate the Phase Detector Module.  It is referred to during the Calibration Procedure for the MSA.

[Data] (during VNA-Transmission Mode)
    [S21 Parameters] - Final S21 Data, in Touchstone format
    [Graph Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 3 columns of values, with a row of values for each frequency step in one full sweep.  The data columns are:
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Processed Data that is referenced on the Left Axis
Processed Data that is referenced on the Right Axis
    [Input Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 7 columns of values:
Step Number- from 0 to value of "Steps/Sweep"
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Calc Magnitude Input-  Calculated Magnitude Input to MSA (in dBm), a process using Factors from the Path and Frequency Calibration Tables
Mag AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Mag AtoD Converter, no processing done
Freq Cal Factor- Frequency Calibration Factor, interpolated from the Mag vs. Frequency Table.  The table was derived during the Initial MSA Calibration.
Pha AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Phase AtoD Converter, no processing done
Processed Phase- The processed value of Phase (in degrees) as plotted on the graph

    [Installed Line Cal] - This will open a Data Window and display 3 columns of values:
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Cal_Mag-  The Magnitude Calibration Factor from the Line Calibration in use during the sweep
Cal_Ang-  The Phase Calibration Factor from the Line Calibration in use during the sweep

[Functions] (during VNA-Transmission Mode)
    [Filter Analysis]  This will open a "Filter Analysis" window for placing markers at various points on the trace.   The maximum response on the Graph is assumed to be a filter response.  The 3 dB points are calculated and used to create analysis information, next to the Marker Information.
This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See: The MSA as a Filter Analyzer.
    [Crystal Analysis]  The response on the Graph is assumed to be a series crystal response.  This will open a "Crystal Analysis" window for the determination of crystal parameters. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA as a Crystal Tester.
    [RLC Analysis]  Provides a simple way to analyze a complex circuit by transforming to an equivalent Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor circuit. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA for RLC Analysis.
    [Component Meter]  Provides a simple way to measure resitors, capacitors and inductors, much like an RCL meter. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA for Component Measurement.

[Operating Cal]  for VNA-Transmission Mode
    [Perform Cal] - This will open the window, "Perform Calibrations".  This will allow the operator to perform a Reference Line Calibration, which preceeds a standard VNA measurement.  This calibration will "normalize" the sweep to 0 dB for Magnitude and 0 degrees for Phase.  After this calibration, all sweeps will be Referenced to this "normalized" calibration.  When either of the following calibrations are performed, insure that the Plane Extension is "0", found in the "Sweep Parameters"  window.
    The Band Sweep Calibration will calibrate the VNA for a specific frequency range.  The calibration values are stored in local memory and will be deleted when the MSA session is closed.  The accuracy of the VNA is valid only when the subsequent sweeps are identical to the sweep frequency that is calibrated.

    The Baseline Calibration is normally the sweep frequency range of the VNA, which is .1 MHz to 1000 MHz. (greater than 0 Hz).  This calibration is stored in a file, and is placed into the same folder as the MSA software.  It is not deleted at the end of the MSA session.  It will be accessable for all future sessions.  Although this calibration is quite accurate at the time it is taken, it may not be accurate at a later time, due to temperature differences.  But, it is a valuable for "ballpark" measurements.  The Verification MSA showed that, after one month, the Baseline Cal had shifted less than .1 dB and less than 4 degrees with ripple of less than 0.5 degrees.

    [Reference To] - This will open a window to select the VNA to reference its measurements to the appropriate calibration table.  On initial running of the VNA, the Cal tables are filled with zeros.  It is the same thing as selecting "No Reference".  If a Baseline Calibration has been performed, the file will be accessed and the calibration will be valid.  "No Reference" is the default.

[Mode]
Click to enter any mode of operation.
    [Spectrum Analyzer] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Signal Generator
    [Spectrum Analyzer with TG] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Tracking Generator
    [VNA Transmission] Vector Network Analyzer, Transmission Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S21or S12 Parameters of a Device.  Sometimes used with a test fixture containing the Device.
    [VNA Reflection] Vector Network Analyzer, Reflection Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S11 or S22 Parameters of a Device using some form of Reflection Bridge.

Control during VNA-Reflection Mode
    When the MSA Program "spectrumanalyzer" is run, the MSA will automatically begin sweeping in the Spectrum Analyzer Mode, by defaultThe VNA-Reflection Mode is entered from the Menu / Mode. The following is a screen print of the Graph Window and Graph Display while sweeping in the VNA-Reflection Mode.  A Crystal Filter is the DUT (Device Under Test), with a 10 dB attenuator on each end.
Graph Display, VNA-Reflection Mode:
msascreens/graphvnarefl135.gif

Smith Chart, VNA-Reflection Mode:
msascreens/smithvnarefl135.gif

Menu Items during VNA-Reflection Mode

[File] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Edit] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Options] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode
[Setup] same as Spectrum Analyzer Mode, except:
    [PDM Calibration] This will open the "PDM Calibration Manager" window.  This window will allow the operator to calibrate the Phase Detector Module.  It is referred to during the Calibration Procedure for the MSA.

[Data] (during VNA-Reflection Mode)
    [S11 Parameters] - Final S11 Data, in Touchstone format
    [S11 Derived Data] - 18 Columns of Data collected. More to be written here.
    [Graph Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 3 columns of values, with a row of values for each frequency step in one full sweep.  The data columns are:
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Processed Data that is referenced on the Left Axis
Processed Data that is referenced on the Right Axis
    [Input Data] - This will open a Data Window and display 7 columns of values:
Step Number- from 0 to value of "Steps/Sweep"
Freq(MHz)- The frequency at each step
Calc Magnitude Input-  Calculated Magnitude Input to MSA (in dBm), a process using Factors from the Path and Frequency Calibration Tables
Mag AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Mag AtoD Converter, no processing done
Freq Cal Factor- Frequency Calibration Factor, interpolated from the Mag vs. Frequency Table.  The table was derived during the Initial MSA Calibration.
Pha AtoD Bit Val- The "raw" bit value of Phase AtoD Converter, no processing done
Processed Phase- The processed value of Phase (in degrees) as plotted on the graph
    [Cal Reference] - The installed line cal, which in reflection mode is the data from the Open scan, but with the Series fixture it is the data from the Short scan.
    [OSL Info] - S11 of the cal standards, and the A, B, C OSL coefficients

[Functions] (during VNA-Reflection Mode)
    [RLC Analysis]  Provides a simple way to analyze a complex circuit by transforming to an equivalent Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor circuit. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA for RLC Analysis.
    [Coax Parameters]  Transmission Line Analysis. This Function has its own dedicated Web Page.  See The MSA as a Transmission Line Analyzer.

[Operating Cal]  for VNA-Reflection Mode
    [Perform Cal] - This will open the window, "Perform Calibrations".  This will allow the operator to perform a Reference Line Calibration, which preceeds a standard VNA measurement.  This calibration will "normalize" the sweep to 0 dB for Magnitude and 0 degrees for Phase.  After this calibration, all sweeps will be Referenced to this "normalized" calibration.  When either of the following calibrations are performed, insure that the Plane Extension is "0", found in the "Sweep Parameters"  window.
    The Band Sweep Calibration will calibrate the VNA for a specific frequency range.  The calibration values are stored in local memory and will be deleted when the MSA session is closed.  The accuracy of the VNA is valid only when the subsequent sweeps are identical to the sweep frequency that is calibrated.
    The Baseline Calibration is normally the sweep frequency range of the VNA, which is .1 MHz to 1000 MHz. (greater than 0 Hz).  This calibration is stored in a file, and is placed into the same folder as the MSA software.  It is not deleted at the end of the MSA session.  It will be accessable for all future sessions.  Although this calibration is quite accurate at the time it is taken, it may not be accurate at a later time, due to temperature differences.  But, it is a valuable for "ballpark" measurements.  The Verification MSA showed that, after one month, the Baseline Cal had shifted less than .1 dB and less than 4 degrees with ripple of less than 0.5 degrees.
    [Reference To] - This will open a window to select the VNA to reference its measurements to the appropriate calibration table.  On initial running of the VNA, the Cal tables are filled with zeros.  It is the same thing as selecting "No Reference".  If a Baseline Calibration has been performed, the file will be accessed and the calibration will be valid.  "No Reference" is the default.

[Mode]
Click to enter any mode of operation.
    [Spectrum Analyzer] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Signal Generator
    [Spectrum Analyzer with TG] Spectrum Analyzer Mode, with Tracking Generator
    [VNA Transmission] Vector Network Analyzer, Transmission Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S21or S12 Parameters of a Device.  Sometimes used with a test fixture containing the Device.
    [VNA Reflection] Vector Network Analyzer, Reflection Mode.  This mode is used for measuring the S11 or S22 Parameters of a Device using some form of Reflection Bridge.